THE FOUR HUNDREDS--UNION OF CHURCH AND STATE
century is marked by the union of Church and State which became the
greatest source of unity, so that Orosius wrote: "I find my country,
my law, and my religion… a Roman among Romans, a Christian among
however, was racked with theological dissensions. And their
continuous appeal to Rome showed their recognition of the
pre-eminence of the Roman See in all things theological.
era, the civil authority began to become weak and the Popes found
themselves having to administer the civil duties. Thus, the Popes
became both the spiritual and civil leader as in the case of Pope
Leo the Great. The Popes even had to plan the defense of nations
healthy relationship should be based on the Pope being over the
civil head by reason of the superiority of the spiritual over the
natural, in the East, it was the emperor who wanted to put the
Church under the civil authority. And since the pope is the big
obstacle to this, the Eastern Emperor tried all means to separate
the Eastern Church from Rome. Six centuries later the Emperor would
the union of Church and State, both the Pope and head of State
became interested on who would be the next Pope or head of State.
And so followed an almost interminable attempt on both sides to
meddle in the affairs of other.
era, we see the fifth Anti-Pope. Anti-Popes are not necessarily bad
persons. Most often, they were elected in a doubtful manner. Some of
them are saints. In some cases, it really was not clear who was the
real Pope. And so they are called Anti-Popes by historians but not
necessarily by God who does the choosing ultimately.